Africa African Tribes Black Panther Tribes Dassanetch Tribe Dorze Tribe Ethiopia Ethiopia Tribes Hamer Tribe Karo Tribe Konso Tribe Mursi Tribe Omo Valley Omo Valley Ethiopia Omo Valley Tribes Travel

The Search For The Next Black Panther Tribe In Omo Valley Ethiopia

Black Panther Wakanda African Tribes

Considered one of my favorite blockbuster films in 2018 was the Marvel Comics superhero movie, The Black Panther, starring Chadwick Boseman! Within the film, there have been many desirable African tribes who have been dressed in several costumes that included lip plates, jewellery and armed weapons. This film superbly showcased the sweetness and variety of African tribes to the remainder of the world.

Black Panther Wakanda African Tribes

Picture from: https://aminoapps.com/c/k-drama/page/blog/pqfdvq42nbembetmpkpf2676xe/ER8s_Puxl4KXa1berlNZRdWwxZ3l8rz

After watching the Black Panther film, I used to be impressed to perform a little research on the tribes featured within the film. With the analysis info I’ve gathered, I launched into a solo journey to hunt for these tribes. On this article, I’m going to unveil the sweetness and uniqueness of those tribes, in addition to their day by day life. 🙂

Additionally don’t miss out the article: 16 Life Classes From Ethiopia

Mursi Tribe Children

With the Mursi Tribe Youngsters In Omo Valley Ethiopia

Visiting these tribes isn’t a straight ahead journey, I wanted to traverse by way of the robust however fascinating terrains within the Southern Area of Ethiopia. It was a bumpy three days journey by automotive on a mud path and roads passing by villagers, youngsters, tribal cowherds, shepherds, or donkey-herds (unsure if that may be a actual time period for donkey handlers..haha). And sure, the street is full of both animals or youngsters. Nothing like the good highways within the developed world. Additionally, you will want to remain in cities the place the lodging could be very primary, which for my part is suitable and cozy sufficient for me. Utilizing the city as a “base camp” to subsequently take day journeys by automotive, with boat experience and trekking to succeed in the tribes scattered in Omo Valley area. This was an thrilling journey and journey, awaits!

Omo Valley Ethiopia

Omo Valley Ethiopia

Listed here are a few of the fascinating tribes I’ve visited.

#1 The Mursi Tribe

Location

The Mursi tribe for my part is the hardest to get to, situated in probably the most remoted area of the nation – in Southern Ethiopia close to the border with South Sudan. An estimated of 10,000 tribe members of this lovely, sedentary tribe  reside within the surrounding mountains between Omo River and Mago Nationwide Park.

Getting there, I needed to journey three days by automotive on the filth path to the city of Jinka, after which journey a day throughout the Mago Nationwide Park, adopted by a treacherous method excessive up the mountains on a rocky street to find the Mursi tribe individuals. In case you have movement illness, this journey could also be robust for you. However seeing the Mursi individuals was a life time expertise for me and so it completely value it.

Mago National Park

The roads have been too tough for our automotive, poor automotive survived the treacherous street and dust path for every week! Kudos

Tribe Particular Symbolic 

Keep in mind the village chief with the lip plate of their lip from the film “Black Panther”? This can be a key function of the Mursi  ladies. The Mursi ladies put on clay or picket plates of their decrease lips or earlobes. That is a part of their conventional rites of passages for instructional and disciplinary functions. The Mursi ladies begin sporting these plates when they’re round 15 to 16 years previous, when the woman’s decrease lip is reduce by her mom. The opening of the wound is held open by a picket plug till it heals.

Mursi Lady with Lip Plate

Taking a look at this Mursi Woman with Lip Plate, my response was OUCH!

Will probably be as much as the person Mursi younger woman to determine how massive to stretch the lip aside, by inserting progressively bigger plates through the years. It was believed that the larger the plate, the extra fascinating and prized it is going to be for the woman’s worth  in marriage.

Mursi Tribe lady with Lip plate feeding her baby

Mursi Tribe woman with Lip plate feeding her child, completely fascinated with the fruits on prime of her head!

These traditions have been handed down by generations and it was believed that the apply of chopping and stretching the decrease lip originated as a deliberate disfigurement in the course of the western colonization interval to make the ladies and women much less engaging to slave merchants. A painful reminder of the horrible slave commerce that plague the African historical past.

Mursi Tribe lady with baby

Mursi Tribe woman with child exiting their hut, really fascinating decorations.

Secret Weapon

Do you know that the Mursi tribe have a fame for being one of many extra aggressive African tribes (I can testify for it) and are well-known for his or her stick preventing ceremony referred to as the Mursi Donga Stick Preventing. The brutal stick preventing is a standard struggle that the Mursi males should follows to show their masculinity and maturity. Undoubtedly not a enjoyable appearing wrestling to observe!

The aggressive Mursi Tribe snatching away my gifts for the children

By no means underestimate the power and energy of the Mursi tribe individuals. They will get actually aggressive particularly once I was distributing to the youngsters. Even adults have been snatching issues from me.

And the Mursi tribe males do carry rifles. I do not know the place they get their rifle and ammunition from, however to guard themselves from lethal animals and assaults from different tribes, the Mursi males have discovered tips on how to use a rifle for cover, searching and survival within the mountains at a really younger age. So, don’t fiddle with them!

Mursi Tribe Men With Rifle

Nicely, not messing round with them in fact! The Mursi Tribe Males With Rifle!!! haha No joke.

Tradition

The Mursi tribe individuals lived humbly in huts referred to as Doris, that may accommodate a number of relations. The ladies within the tribe are chargeable for constructing these easy houses. They rely closely on cattle for meat and milk for his or her meals consumption. Additionally they harvest maize, chick peas, and beans. Sadly, due to the place they reside, the Mursi individuals typically face drought, which weakens their crops and cattle herds. 🙁

Mursi young ladies with their hut

The Mursi tribe individuals are often taller than different Ethiopian tribes and even individuals from the town. Someway, they’re consuming at the least one factor proper to make them so robust and tall.

The Mursi tribe are additionally recognized for his or her elaborate physique and facial paining, utilizing physique artwork as an expression of their social hierarchical class within the tribe. The colors, patterns and designs are used to designate place, for ritual or to thrust back illness, and even can be utilized to draw the other gender. Totally different designs for various occasions. Every design has a unique which means/reasoning and evokes totally different feelings and emotions.

Mursi Tribe children with body paint

Youngsters are warriors too. Mursi Tribe youngsters with physique paint.

#2 The Daasanach Tribe

Location

The Daasanach tribe is a semi-nomadic tribe with roughly 50,000 tribe individuals. They’re discovered within the space stretching throughout Sudan and Kenya borders in Southern Ethiopia. They’re the furthest tribe to go to in Ethiopia from the capital of Addis Ababa. Getting there, you’ll have to journey actually down South, close to the Kenya and Sudan border in addition to near the Northern a part of Lake Turkana. Take a dugout canoes produced from trunk of a big tree to get throughout the river, then trek for a bit to succeed in their settlement.

Crossing the river with dugout canoe

Crossing the river with dugout canoe, critically there have been far too many crocodiles within the river to make me do a correct smile. Additionally, I used to be extremely uncertain concerning the dugout canoe.

Up to now, the tribe was nomadic and roam freely relying on the climate and season, however in current occasions the Daasanach tribe began to be depending on agriculture. Like many tribes of the Omo Valley, just like the Daasanach tribe depend upon the annual flood cycle of the Omo River to nurture their crops.

Daasanech tribe children

These lovely youngsters, by no means fails to brighten up my day! Thanks to the Daasanech tribe youngsters!

One of many fascinating factor concerning the Daasanech tribe is that they don’t politically belong to any of the nations (Ethiopia, Sudan, and Kenya), and like to be self-governed. They’re the one ones who’re capable of transfer freely between the nations and the borders. How cool is that? haha

Dassanech tribe houses

Daasanech tribe is nomadic, between Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan. They principally are given free move to remain across the three nations. How cool isn’t it?

Tribe Particular Symbolic 

The Daasanech tribe ladies clothes look fancy with lengthy cow pores and skin clothes and multicolored beaded necklaces. An fascinating trend development amongst the Dassanach tribe individuals is their headgear. Particularly the lads, with an extended function and a few multicolored beaded necklaces, the adults are usually tall and look robust.

Dassanech tribe man

Dassanech tribe man, often very tall and powerful. Fortunately, this man seems actually sort to me.

DassanechTribe Man

Dassanech Tribe Man together with his Head Gear and Necklace

Dassanech tribe women

Dassanech tribe ladies with their necklaces and gears

The Dassanech tribe is likely one of the extra revolutionary and “enterprise” minded tribe that I’ve visited. They recycle gadgets to supply hand-made craft and jewelries, decorations and attempt to promote them in their very own “markets”. Lots of these things are produced from buckets of dried small flowers and branches, or with adorned shells, white feathers and bottlecaps collected from discarded coke or beer bottles.

Dassanech tribe market

Dassanech tribe market. (Your fifth Avenue, Orchard Street, Bond Road, Champs-Élysées and so on…)

Dassanech tribe handicraft merchandise

Dassanech tribe handicraft merchandise

Secret Weapon

The Daasanach males are recognized for his or her preventing prowess and are feared by many neighboring tribes. Raids are sometimes carried out to acquire extra cattle. The Daasanach warriors are additionally pleased with the variety of enemies they’ve killed, that’s one tribe that undoubtedly maintain a kill rely rating.

Dassanech sleeping man with his crops and cattles

You realize once I stated the Dassanech warriors, I’m not referring to this Dassanech sleeping man together with his crops and cattles! haha

Tradition

Amongst all of the tribes, I really feel the Daasanech tribe individuals have the hardest life. Cattles are an important livelihood for them. However through the years, their livestock are reducing in numbers resulting from illness and drought, forcing many to hunt for crocodiles meat and fish within the river for survival. It’s also fascinating to notice that cattles are additionally used on this tribe as a key standing image, and people who haven’t any cattle are appeared down upon. That is an analogous tradition like their tribal cousins in Kenya – The Maasai Tribe. Learn: A Humbling Expertise In The Maasai Tribe!

Daasanech tribe with cattles

Daasanech tribe with cattle, clearly I received this shot as a result of I used to be of their means.

Additionally all tribe members within the Daasanech tribe should strictly obey one conventional ceremony of passage – circumcision. This is applicable to each women and men earlier than they are often think about as a part of the Daasanech tribe.

Dassanech man with his goats

Various to cattle, would be the goats, they have been a lot friendlier than the cattle.

The Daasanach tribe individuals reside in dome-shaped homes comprised of a body of branches, coated with hides and woven packing containers. Contained in the huts, they’ve mats which lay on the ground for sleeping. These dome homes can slot in 13 to 15 individuals.  For my part, their homes are appear stronger and larger than the Mursi tribe.

Dassanech women in their huts for celebrating a new born baby

Dassanech ladies of their huts for celebrating a brand new born child. A woman stored inviting me to hitch them. Neah, I’ll get slightly uncomfortable.

The Daasanech tribe houses

The Daasanech tribe homes. How totally different from yours?

#three The Hamer Tribe

Location

Roughly 20,000 to 25,000 Hamer tribe individuals are discovered within the Japanese a part of Omo Valley the place there are market cities like Turmi and Dimeka. Due to the extra “fertile” land on the japanese aspect of Omo Valley, the Hamer tribe are extra lucky than the Mursi and the Daasanech tribe. However they’re nonetheless topic to pure disasters like droughts and climate change. Just like the opposite tribes, cattle is the primary supply of life and signal of wealth and standing within the household.  Accumulating honey, searching within the wild for antelope or boars are additionally different sources of meals for the Hamer tribe.

Hammer Tribe

The gorgeous Hammer Tribe in deep Omo Valley, Ethiopia

Tribe Particular Symbolic 

The Hamer tribe ladies are well-known for the follow of physique adornment and sporting a mess of vibrant beads, just like the Daasanech tribe ladies. They like to beautify themselves by sporting heavy polished iron jewellery, which seems very heavy to me, and cow’s pores and skin leather-based clothes.

Hammer Tribe Costume

I used to be asking the woman on the left to put on her garments correctly for my photographs. Clearly, that’s her style sense. I gotta deliver a star down.

The Hamer tribe ladies are additionally nicely know for beautifying their hair with beads and dying them in ochre which produces a brownish color. Ochre is a pure clay earth pigment which is a mix of ferric oxide and ranging quantities of clay and sand. It ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. Sadly, Ochre was lately found by the researchers to be the primary cause for inflicting blindness within the Hamer tribe ladies. I perceive from my information that the federal government had tried persuading the Hamer ladies to cease this follow of dyeing their hair with ochre however it was ignored by the tribes.

Hammer Tribe Women

The pink dye on their hair is Ochre, which can trigger blindness. 🙁

Secret Weapon

The Hamer tribe are recognized to be aggressive and hard individuals. I personally witnessed a Hamer tribe ladies throwing rocks at individuals who they deem as threatening and annoying. The Hamer tribe ladies are to not be messed round with.

Aggressive African Woman

Robust Hammer Tribe Lady, she was the one tossing stones at my digital camera. They consider digital camera will steal away their souls and reduces their life span.

Out there, greens are costlier than meat as they’re briefly provide. When spinach arrives, the Hamer tribe ladies might be seen preventing onerous to grab a portion to purchase for his or her household. Mockingly, on this a part of the world, meat is taken into account a less expensive selection than greens.

Hammer Tribe Child

Costly Spinach in Ethiopia, later, this little woman invited me to eat the Spinach. I simply can’t do this. it meant a lot for them.

Their handicrafts and markets are as vibrant as their type! it displayed the skills of the Hamer Tribe individuals!

Hamer Tribe Market

Hamer Tribe Market (That is your NTUC, Woolworth, Walmart, Tesco and so forth…)

Hamer Tribe Market

Hamer Tribe Market Merchandise! Right here is their Hollywood the place you discover your Gucci, Prada, LV and so on…

Hamer Tribe Handicraft

The Fascinating Hamer Tribe Handicraft

Tradition

The Hamer males have a fame of being amorous and merciless husbands in comparison with their neighbouring tribes.  They will marry as many ladies as they like inside their very own tribe, by paying the “dowry” with cattle and goats. As a part of the wedding, the Hamer tribe ladies should undergo the rituals floggings, which depart painful deep scars. Sadly these are regarded inside the tribe as proof of devotion and like to their husbands.

Hammer Tribe Woman Love Scar

Take note of this moms left arm, its a love scars to exhibit her devotion to her husband.

If the husband handed away, the widow should marry one of many husband’s brother. It was stated that that is a part of their conventional and tradition, for the ladies and youngsters’s care and safety.

Hamer Tribe Child

This Hamer Tribe boy was too fascinated with my hair! He was too cute. I want I might give him extra.

One other unhappy custom that’s practiced inside the Hamer tribe, is that the ladies are allowed to have intercourse earlier than marriage to check the single lady’s fertility. Lots of them are recognized to desert their very own harmless infants into the bush, leaving them to die within the wild. The Ethiopian authorities and a few non-government organizations are actively looking for infants within the bush to save lots of these harmless souls. The federal government tried educating the Hamer tribe to abort such traditions, nevertheless it was typically ignored because of the superstitious perception that the kid born out of wedlock could also be cursed and trigger epidemics or droughts. 🙁

Hamer Tribe Children

I used to be lucky to had a brief interplay with these lovely Hamer Tribe boys. Take note of the boy subsequent to me, he was clearly extra serious about my digital camera man. haha

#four The Dorze Tribe

Location

The Dorze tribe has an estimated inhabitants of 30,000 tribe members dwelling within the villages close to the cities of Chencha and Arba Minch, within the Semien Omo Zone of the Southern Nations. The Dorze tribe stretches over a significantly giant space from the Omo River banks to the highlands over Lake Abaya. The highlands has a mean elevation of 9000 ft to the west of the Rift Valley and the Dorze tribe occupy the Japanese edge about 2600m above sea degree. Which means the Dorze tribe’s location is usually cooler temperature and wetter than the opposite tribes.

Dorze Tribe

The seek for Dorze Tribe! My Ethiopian information was serving to me with this shot. First time utilizing my cam, and I kinda prefer it. The background was in focus as an alternative of me. One way or the other, it matches into my story line right here. 🙂

Tribe Particular Symbolic 

Dorze tribe are mountain individuals and they’re well-known for constructing big huts that resembles an elephant. Though these huts look fragile, they will last as long as 60 years. The Dorze tribe huts may also be transported to a different location simply, because of the construction product of vertical poles. It can be trimmed shorter and shorter through the years when the termite assaults. 🙂

Dorze Tribe Elephant Hut

Dorze Tribe Elephant Hut, are you able to see the elephant head from right here?

Each hut is designed to have a “nostril of the elephant” dealing with the south path, to maintain the within of the hut cool (i.e. no direct daylight into the hut). It’s fascinating to notice that the Dorze tribe have a reception space for welcoming visitor to sit close to the doorway of the hut in order that the customer can accustom their eyes to the darkness within the hut earlier than getting into absolutely into the hut. Don’t be idiot by its exterior, it might look small from the surface, however the inside is shocking giant and spacious. The hut embody a reception space, a front room, 2 to three rooms and an area for the cattle to sleep. Sure, the cattle are stored inside the hut to stop theft and sleep with the household.

Interior of Dorze Tribe Hut

The Inside of the Elephant Hut of Dorze Tribe, significantly, this villa is sweet for three rooms of individuals + an space for his or her cattle and goats.

Secret Weapon

Being blessed with an advantageous geographical location excessive up within the highlands and inherited skills are their secret weapons for survival! The Dorze tribe individuals interact in small scale farming or subsistence agriculture and hold livestock akin to goat, cows and hen for home consumption. The ladies additionally put together Kotcho (an Ethiopian flat bread) out of the trunk of of a tree (the locals name it false banana). The Ethiopians Kotcho made by the Dorze tribe individuals is very regarded for its dietary worth and is extensively consumed each in cities and countrywide. The Kotcho is ready with water, bulla (liquid from Ensete ventricosum aka false banana), and cooked over hearth and stone. All pure components and it tasted yummy!

Dorze Tribe woman preparing Kotcho

Dorze Tribe lady getting ready Kotcho

Kotcho

The scrumptious Kotcho vegetarian and vegan pleasant 🙂

The Dorze tribe ladies are famend for his or her hand woven cotton clothes often known as “Shamma”. Additionally they hand weave heavy blankets referred to as “Bulluko”. A a lot thinner cotton material, is used to tailor clothes for ladies. Particular expertise are essential to design and weave the multicolored intricate edging, referred to as “Tibeb”. Therefore, their lives are undoubtedly extra superior than the Mursi, Daasanech and Hamer tribe individuals in Omo Valley Ethiopia.

Shamma

A Dorze tribe woman utilizing Shamma to make garments.

Cute Dorze Tribe Child With Bulluko

Cute Dorze Tribe Baby With Bulluko, he was simply sooooo cute. I used to be filming the colors of the Bulluko and this boy simply smile so superbly to me. Belief me, it gained’t occurred in Singapore.

Tradition

It was famous throughout my go to that the Dorze tribe males have an awesome sense of humour. Traditionally, they have been as soon as warriors however now the Dorze males people have settled right down to do farming or interact in weaving during which has develop into a singular factor related to them. Dwelling excessive within the mountains, blessed with fertile land and pure assets. Undoubtedly, they lead a a lot better life than the remainder of the tribes in Ethiopia, however I witness youngster labour points within the Dorze tribe as properly.

Dorze Tribe Children

The gorgeous Dorze Tribe, was kinda touched by them.

Dorze Tribe Culture

The Dorze Tribe Males Hospitality, feeding visitor with Kotcho earlier than their first chew. I truthfully was a bit fearful concerning the consuming them, however I needed to. it truly style good. No kidding.

Africa Child Labour

Youngster labour continues to be a problem right here! Seeing this sight, simply makes me unhappy. 🙁

#5 The Konso Tribe

Location

Konso tribe is the final tribe I’m introducing from the South-Japanese a part of Ethiopia and are discovered close to the Sagan river. Just like the Dorze, the Konso tribe individuals additionally lived excessive up within the mountains with an elevation of 1650 meters excessive. This website can also be a listed as an UNESCO World Heritage website in Ethiopia.

Searching for Konso Tribe

Looking for Konso Tribe

Tribe Particular Symbolic 

The Panorama the place the Konso tribe resides is situated on a dry, hilly setting on the fringe of the Rift Valley in southern Ethiopia. It has all the time been an remoted space of the nation, the place life have remained principally unchanged for at the very least 400 years. The in depth dry stone terraces are a testomony to the persistent human effort to harness the onerous, dry and rocky setting. The person-made terraces are the Konso tribe foremost distinctive function. It’s lovely constructed and may stand up to soil erosion, cleverly gather giant quantity of water, discharge the surplus to have a terraced fields system that can be utilized for agriculture. The terraces are contoured with the dry stone partitions, which is as much as 5 meters in peak.

First impression of Konso Village

First impression of Konso Village

Secret Weapon

One of many cause why the Konso tribe village are listed as UNESCO World Heritage website in Omo Valley Ethiopia is due to their fascinating village format. The tribe is situated on the hilltops and cut up up into smaller communities, with every group having a major hut. Once I entered a Konso village, I have to cross by means of a gate and a collection of alleys. These paths are a part of it’s safety system to guard the tribe members by making it troublesome for enemies to entry the primary hut space the place the communities keep.

Konso Village High Walls

The Strategy to Kondo Village, bordering by the excessive partitions

Entering Konso Village

Getting into Konso Village

The walled villages referred to as “Paleta” are situated on the excessive hilltops and fortified with excessive defensible partitions. The village are circled by one to 6 rounds of dry stone defensive partitions, constructed of regionally out there rock from the close by mountains. “Daga Hela” is the custom of constructing excessive walled marking stones, quarried, transported and erected via a standard ritual course of, making the Konso tribe one of many final megalithic individuals (i.e. pre-historic individuals).

Konso Village High Walls

Konso Village Excessive Partitions

Konso Village Stairs

Konso Village Stairs

Tradition

In comparison with the opposite tribes, the Konso tribe individuals are typically smaller in measurement and constructed. One fascinating reality concerning the Konso tribe is that they mark the timeline of their generations. A era marker tree or pole referred to as the “Olayta”  is raised each 18 years, marking the beginning of a brand new era. Subsequently the age of a village could be decided by what number of poles are standing.

Olayta

Olayta within the Konso Village

There are cultural areas contained in the Konso walled village, referred to as “Moras”, which an open sitting space. In it, they often have a one or two-story grass thatched homes, referred to as the Pafta. The Konso tribe males will sleep within the attic of the thatched homes at night time to guard the village from numerous incidence of assaults or hearth. Whereas the bottom flooring of the Mora is supposed to be a public space the place the lads collect to control the village life, and in addition a spot for recreation.

Moras

The Moras within the Konso Village, one thing like a fort in trendy context! 🙂

The Konso Tribe male villagers are tremendous gifted, they handmade their very own garments, skirts and pants, and the youngsters made their very own toys. Quite the opposite, I witnessed the women have a poorer life, doing the exhausting labours. 🙁

Konso Village Man

Konso Village Man

Konso Handmade Pants

Konso Handmade Pants

Konso Handicrafts

Konso Handicrafts

Konso Handmade Toys

Konso Handmade Toys

Konso Child Labour

Konso Youngster Labour

Conclusion

So after studying all my tales of visiting 5 of the Tribes within the Omo Valley, Ethiopia, which is the tribe that fascinates you probably the most? Which one of many tribe might  be the subsequent Black Panther? 🙂

The extra I traveled the extra I noticed that worry makes strangers of people that ought to be associates. Your vibe attracts your tribe, so keep constructive, what goes round comes round. – Keith Yuen

The place I Booked My Excursions From?

Whereas that is NOT a sponsored article! I want to specifically thank all of the employees from Witness Ethiopia Excursions, particularly Mr Ermias, who organized all my transfers and plan all my visits to the tribes in line with my plans and price range.  Making this journey a enjoyable and problem free one!

I might additionally love to do a shoutout to my pretty information Mr Dawit Abayenh and my tremendous lovable driver Mr Peter Dimo. Please ask for them if you wish to head off to Ethiopia. Dawit is a tremendous and wonderful information who made me really feel protected all through my journey. He’s additionally very educated about every part in Ethiopia! Going out with him is sort of a good friend you could have recognized for a very long time and may really depend upon. Whereas Peter is probably the most skillful driver I’ve ever seen on all my travels, navigating robust terrain and troublesome lengthy drives easily and safely! 🙂

Witness Ethiopia

With Witness Ethiopia’s Group

For many who have an interest, will depart the contacts under on your straightforward reference. 🙂

Witness Ethiopia Excursions

Tackle: Down City Constructing, 4th Flooring, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Phone: +251 911 785789

E mail: [email protected]

Web site: www.witnessethiopiatours.com

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